Put the flour into a large bowl and stir in the salt and yeast. Make a well in the centre and pour in 3 tablespoons of the olive oil and the tepid water. Gradually mix the flour into the oil and water, using a wooden spoon at first, then by hand, to make a soft, slightly sticky dough.
Turn the dough out onto a floured surface and knead until smooth and elastic, about 10 minutes, incorporating a little flour if the dough is very sticky.
Roll the dough out into a fairly thin rectangle, and sprinkle half of the dough with the kalamata olives.
Fold the dough over the olives, fold again, and knead just a few times to distribute the olives.
Divide the dough into 2 or 3 unequal parts, and shape each part into a rough oval. Roll out the dough to 2cm thickness, and cut slits and stretch the dough on a baking tray lined with baking parchment to resemble a leaf.
Cover loosely with a clean tea-towel, tucking the ends under the baking tray, and leave in a warm place for about 45 minutes or until the dough has doubled in thickness.
Towards the end of the rising time, preheat the oven to 230 C / Gas 8.
Bake in the preheated oven until golden brown, about 15 minutes. Transfer to a wire rack to cool for 15 minutes. Serve warm or allow to cool completely. The bread can be kept in a plastic bag for up to 2 days, or it freezes well.
Of course, if you plan to use the focaccia for flatbread sandwiches, you can just pat or roll the olive dough into a rectangle on a baking tray lined with baking parchment. Pour a little hand-hot water into a cup, then dip your fingers into the water and press into the risen dough to make deep dents all over the top; wet your fingers each time, to leave the top of the loaf moist. Brush a little olive oil over the bread and sprinkle with the coarse salt and chopped rosemary. Bake as above.