Heat oil in a multi-functional pressure cooker, such as an Instant Pot® on Saute mode. Saute onion, carrot and celery until onion has softened, about 5 minutes. Toss in cabbage and potato; cook until cabbage starts to break down, 2 to 3 minutes.
Mix chicken stock, mustard and ketchup into the cabbage mixture. Cook and stir until combined, about 1 minute. Stir in salt and pepper; add bay leaf and clove. Place garlic in the centre of the pot.
Close the pot and lock the lid. Select Soup setting or high pressure according to manufacturer's instructions; set timer for 6 minutes. Allow 10 to 15 minutes for pressure to build.
Release pressure carefully using the quick-release method according to manufacturer's instructions, about 5 minutes. Unlock and remove lid.