Heat olive oil in a large pan over medium-high heat. Cook beef in batches in hot oil until browned completely, about 5 minutes per batch. Remove browned beef to a plate lined with kitchen paper, keeping pan over heat and retaining the beef drippings.
Cook and stir onion, celery and carrots in the retained beef drippings until just softened, 2 to 3 minutes. Stir mushrooms and garlic into the onion mixture.
Pour red wine into the pan; bring to the boil while scraping the browned bits of food off the bottom of the pan with a wooden spoon. Continue cooking the mixture until the wine evaporates, 7 to 10 minutes. Stir tomatoes into the mixture.
Return beef to pan with potatoes, basil, thyme, marjoram and sage. Pour beef stock and tomato passata over the mixture. Bring the liquid to a simmer.
Reduce heat to low and simmer until the beef is very tender and the sauce is thick, 4 to 6 hours.
To create a soup from this stew, chop up vegetables and beef pieces into much smaller pieces and add vegetable stock or water until it resembles a soup. Simmer briefly, but not too high as it will make the soup extremely cloudy.